Yearly Archives: 2004

/2004

Brain Inflammation and Alzheimer’s-Like Pathology in Individuals Exposed to Severe Air Pollution

Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer’s-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air [...]

Applications of Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enjoyed enormous clinical success since the first demonstration of the method more than 30 years ago. An increasing number of pharmaceutical manufacturers seeking new biomarkers for assessing drug efficacy and toxicity are turning to MRI. A specific application of MRI promises to revolutionize pathology for the basic scientist in the [...]

Prediction of Rodent Carcinogenesis: An Evaluation of Prechronic Liver Lesions as Forecasters of Liver Tumors in NTP Carcinogenicity Studies

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) developed the chronic 2-year bioassay as a mechanism for predicting the carcinogenic potential of chemicals in humans. The cost and duration of these studies has limited their use to small numbers of selected chemicals. Many different short-term methods aimed at increasing predictive accuracy and the number of chemicals evaluated have [...]

Follicular Epithelial Cell Hypertrophy Induced by Chronic Oral Administration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin in Female Harlan Sprague–Dawley Rats

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects the thyroid morphologically and/or functionally in adult animals. Recently, the National Toxicology Program conducted a 2-year gavage study of TCDD in female Harlan Sprague–Dawley rats. The only treatment-related alterations found in thyroid follicles were decreased luminal size and increased height of the follicular epithelial cells, without prominent protrusion into the lumen. The [...]

Relevance of Animal Carcinogenesis Findings to Human Cancer Predictions and Prevention

Use of laboratory animals to identify carcinogenic potential of chemicals, mixtures, and other agents has a modern history of greater than 40 years from which much useful scientific and public health information can be derived. While laboratory animals differ from humans in some respects that may affect responses to hazardous exposures, use of such models [...]