Toxicologic Pathology Articles

/Toxicologic Pathology Articles

Imaging Applications in Toxicologic Pathology – Recommendations for Use in Regulated Non-Clinical Toxicity Studies

Available imaging systems for use in preclinical toxicology studies increasingly show utility as important tools in the toxicologic pathologist’s armamentarium, permit longitudinal evaluation of functional and morphological changes in tissues, and provide important information such as organ and lesion volume not obtained by conventional toxicology study parameters. Representative examples of practical applications in toxicology research [...]

Compact Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems – Novel Cost-Effective Tools for Preclinical Drug Safety and Efficacy Evaluation

Practical magnetic resonance imaging for use in investigative and preclinical toxicology studies is now feasible. Newly developed, self-containing imaging systems provide an efficient and cost-effective means to rapidly obtain in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging images to improve how we perform toxicology and toxicologic pathology. Drug development is a lengthy and highly expensive [...]

Recommendations from the INHAND Apoptosis/Necrosis Working Group

Historically, there has been confusion relating to the diagnostic nomenclature for individual cell death. Toxicologic pathologists have generally used the terms “single cell necrosis” and “apoptosis” interchangeably. Increased research on the mechanisms of cell death in recent years has led to the understanding that apoptosis and necrosis involve different cellular pathways and that these differences [...]

Ninety-day toxicity and single-dose toxicokinetics study of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin in Sprague-Dawley rat

alpha-Glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) is highly absorbable and has been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Based on a favorable safety profile, it has been confirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compound by the FDA. Nevertheless, safety and toxicity information for AGIQ is still sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the safety [...]

Genotoxicity Assessment of the Flavouring Agent, Perillaldehyde

Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of [...]

The Legacy of the F344 Rat as a Cancer Bioassay Model (A Retrospective Summary of Three Common F344 Neoplasms)

Robert R. Maronpot1, Abraham Nyska2, Jennifer E. Foreman3, Yuval Ramot4 1Maronpot Consulting LLC, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Timrat, Israel, 3ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annadale, New Jersey, USA,  4Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel Keywords: Mononuclear cell leukemia, LGL leukemia, Leydig cell tumor, tunica vaginalis mesothelioma, cancer bioassay, carcinogenesis [...]

Genetic and Rat Toxicity Studies of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase

Highlights • Bacterial cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) is used to produce a water soluble form of glycosylated isoquercitrin. • Genotoxicity battery on CGTase and sodium sulfate negative for mutations and DNA damage. • No evidence of systemic toxicity in 90-day rat toxicity study of CGTase Introduction Microbiologically derived cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) is used commercially as a processing agent in [...]

Recommendations from the INHAND Apoptosis/Necrosis Working Group

Historically, there has been confusion relating to the diagnostic nomenclature for individual cell death. Toxicologic pathologists have generally used the terms ‘‘single cell necrosis’’ and ‘‘apoptosis’’ interchangeably. Increased research on the mechanisms of cell death in recent years has led to the understanding that apoptosis and necrosis involve different cellular pathways and that these differences [...]

Safety Assessment and Single-dose Toxicokinetics of the Flavouring Agent Myricitrin in Sprague–Dawley Rats

Myricitrin, a flavonol rhamnoside of myricetin extracted from the Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Siebold) plant, has been used in Japan since 1992 as a flavour modifier in snack foods, dairy products, and beverages. It is affirmed as generally recognised as safe (GRAS) by the US Flavour and Extract Manufacturer Association (FEMA) and is considered safe [...]

Genotoxicity Evaluation of the Flavonoid, Myricitrin, and its Aglycone, Myricetin

Myricitrin, a flavonoid extracted from the fruit, leaves, and bark of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra SIEBOLD), is currently used as a flavor modifier in snack foods, dairy products, and beverages in Japan. Myricitrin is converted to myricetin by intestinal microflora; myricetin also occurs ubiquitously in plants and is consumed in fruits, vegetables, and beverages. The [...]