Toxicologic Pathology Articles and Publications

/Toxicologic Pathology Articles and Publications

Imaging Applications in Toxicologic Pathology – Recommendations for Use in Regulated Non-Clinical Toxicity Studies

Available imaging systems for use in preclinical toxicology studies increasingly show utility as important tools in the toxicologic pathologist’s armamentarium, permit longitudinal evaluation of functional and morphological changes in tissues, and provide important information such [...]

Compact Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems – Novel Cost-Effective Tools for Preclinical Drug Safety and Efficacy Evaluation

Practical magnetic resonance imaging for use in investigative and preclinical toxicology studies is now feasible. Newly developed, self-containing imaging systems provide an efficient and cost-effective means to rapidly obtain in vivo and ex vivo magnetic [...]

The Legacy of the F344 Rat as a Cancer Bioassay Model (A Retrospective Summary of Three Common F344 Neoplasms)

Robert R. Maronpot1, Abraham Nyska2, Jennifer E. Foreman3, Yuval Ramot4 1Maronpot Consulting LLC, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Timrat, Israel, 3ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annadale, New Jersey, USA,  4Hadassah-Hebrew [...]

Practical Applications of in Vivo and ex Vivo MRI in Toxicologic Pathology Using a Novel High-performance Compact MRI System

Catherine Tempel-Brami, Yael S. Schiffenbauer, Abraham Nyska, Nati Ezov, Itai Spector, Rinat abramovitch, and Robert R. Maronpot Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in preclinical research and drug development and is a powerful noninvasive [...]

Long-term Local and Systemic Safety of Poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) after Subcutaneous and Intra-articular Implantation in Rats

Abstract The use of biodegradable materials is gaining popularity in medicine, especially in orthopedic applications. However, preclinical evaluation of biodegradable materials can be challenging, since they are located in close contact with host tissues and [...]

Histopathology of biodegradable polymers: challenges in interpretation and the use of a novel compact MRI for biocompatibility evaluation

Toxicologic pathology is the art of assessment of potential adverse effects at the tissue level in pre-clinical studies. In the case of biomaterials and medical devices, the toxicologic pathologists assess the safety (biocompatibility) and efficacy [...]

Comparative Histomorphological Review of Rat and Human Hepatocellular Proliferative Lesions

In this comparative review, histomorphological features of common nonneoplastic and neoplastic hepatocyte lesions of rats and humans are examined using H&E-stained slides. The morphological similarities and differences of both neoplastic (hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma) [...]

Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece: The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in the Postgenomic Era: Challenges and Opportunities*

The “omics,” high-throughput screening, computational modeling, and database mining revolutions have each arrived with euphoric expectations, considerable hand waving, and promises to set toxicity testing priorities and reduce reliance on conventional animal toxicity and carcinogenicity [...]

Liver Hypertrophy: A Review of Adaptive (Adverse and Non-adverse) Changes—Conclusions from the 3rd International ESTP Expert Workshop

Preclinical toxicity studies have demonstrated that exposure of laboratory animals to liver enzyme inducers during preclinical safety assessment results in a signature of toxicological changes characterized by an increase in liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, cell [...]

Pathology Peer Review

Keywords: toxicologic pathology; safety assessment; quality assurance. This issue of Toxicologic Pathology contains an article by Morton et al. that provides recommendations for pathology peer review of nonclinical studies. This is overall a clear, very [...]

Triclosan: A Critical Review Of The Experimental Data And Development Of Margins Of Safety For Consumer Products

Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether) is an antibacterial compound that has been used in consumer products for about 40 years. The tolerability and safety of triclosan has been evaluated in human volunteers with little indication of toxicity [...]

Furan-induced dose-response relationships for liver cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and tumorigenicity (furan-induced liver tumorigenicity)

Rodent studies of furan are associated with liver cell necrosis, release of liver-associated enzymes, increased hepatocyte proliferation, and hepatocarcinogenesis. For carcinogens whose proposed mode of action is cytolethality, it is hypothesized that the dose-response curve [...]

Immunotoxicity and Environment: Immunodysregulation and Systemic Inflammation in Children

Environmental pollutants, chemicals, and drugs have an impact on children’s immune system development. Mexico City (MC) children exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants exhibit chronic respiratory inflammation, systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits. We [...]

Carcinogenesis

Cancer, or neoplasia, which occurs in one of every four individuals and results in the death of one of every five individuals in the United States, is a complex disease with multiple causes. Many intrinsic [...]

Prediction of Rodent Carcinogenesis: An Evaluation of Prechronic Liver Lesions as Forecasters of Liver Tumors in NTP Carcinogenicity Studies

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) developed the chronic 2-year bioassay as a mechanism for predicting the carcinogenic potential of chemicals in humans. The cost and duration of these studies has limited their use to small [...]

Follicular Epithelial Cell Hypertrophy Induced by Chronic Oral Administration of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin in Female Harlan Sprague–Dawley Rats

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects the thyroid morphologically and/or functionally in adult animals. Recently, the National Toxicology Program conducted a 2-year gavage study of TCDD in female Harlan Sprague–Dawley rats. The only treatment-related alterations found in thyroid [...]

DNA Damage in Nasal and Brain Tissues of Canines Exposed to Air Pollutants Is Associated with Evidence of Chronic Brain Inflammation and Neurodegeneration

Acute, subchronic, or chronic exposures to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gases affect people in urban areas and those exposed to fires, disasters, and wars. Respiratory tract inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of [...]

A Retrospective Analysis of Background Lesions and Tissue Accountability for Male Accessory Sex Organs in Fischer-344 Rats

Because the paired lobes (ventral, dorsal, lateral, and anterior) of the rat prostate have not been consistently sampled in many carcinogenicity and toxicity studies, comparison among different investigations has been compromised. The lack of specific [...]